Wrinkles can occur both in the flashings and within the membrane itself. When there is differential movement between the roof deck and the perimeter, the flashings will wrinkle on a 45-degree angle. When a wrinkle reaches the edge of a membrane or flashing, the opening left at the end of the wrinkle is called a fishmouth because of its bass-mouth-like appearance. Depending on the ply in which the wrinkle occurred, the fishmouth can be a tunnel for water to get down into the building.
Wrinkles within the membrane will eventually fatigue and crack. Because they are raised above the surface of the roof, they are more prone to traffic damage, scuffing and surfacing loss than the rest of the roof.
Flashings must be fastened at the top to prevent the membrane from slipping down the wall or curb, or to keep the membrane from creating a funnel into the building. A flashing normally terminates under a metal counterflashing. If it does, the counterflashing can create problems if the top is not properly sealed or the sealant has failed. If the metal counterflashing does not lap the membrane enough, it may fail to divert water from the flashing and instead funnel water into it.
Surfacings (like those from Conklin) on membranes may provide protection from ultraviolet radiation and damage from traffic on the roof. They also may be a component of the fire rating of the roof. In the case of ballasted roofs, surfacings may be the only thing keeping the roof in place other than gravity. When the surfacing gets displaced or worn off, either from foot traffic, repair persons, wind, etc., this protection no longer applies.
In mechanically attached roofing systems, movement from wind will cause fasteners to rock back and forth with the gusts.
Eventually, this movement causes the hole in the deck around the fastener to enlarge and the fastener to back out. The fastener heads can eventually puncture the membrane from below. But fastener back-out is not limited to single-ply membranes. It is also a common occurrence in metal roofing and in metal accessories on membrane roofs. In these cases, the backed-out fasteners leave holes where water can directly enter the building. This is an especially serious problem when a coping — the metal cap on the top of a parapet — is fastened through the top of the horizontal portion and not through the vertical flanges.
Abuse and Neglect
When it comes to mistreating a roof, the most common culprits are air conditioning and maintenance technicians, window washers, and sign installers. It is not unusual to see debris — ranging from screws and bits of sheet metal all the way up to empty refrigerant canisters and abandoned HVAC units — left on roofs after an air conditioning repair visit.
Small debris can cut into the roof if the debris is stepped on; large debris will work its way into the roof membrane during the hot months of the year. Sign installers routinely install conduit through the walls without properly sealing the penetrations. The water that gets into those penetrations works its way through the walls and into the building, disguised as a roof leak. Window washers and painters hang access equipment over the side of the roof, kick flashings and damage parapets, allowing leaks to occur. All of these groups of people can wreak havoc on base flashings, which get kicked, punctured with tools and machinery, and have mechanical equipment run up against them.
Owners contribute to the early demise of their own roofs by not properly maintaining them and failing to repair small problems, before they become big ones.
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