According to a paper published in March 2012 in Environmental Research Letters about the first scientific results from New York City's effort to brighten rooftops and reduce its “urban heat island” effect, on the hottest day of the summer in 2011, a white roof covering was measured at 42 degrees Fahrenheit cooler than the traditional black roof to which it was being compared.
The dark, sunlight‐absorbing surfaces of some New York City roofs reached 170 degrees Fahrenheit on July 22, 2011, a day that set a city record for electricity usage during the peak of a heat wave. But in the largest discrepancy of that day, a white roofing material was measured at about 42 degrees cooler. The white roof being tested was a low‐cost covering promoted as part of Mayor Michael Bloomberg’s effort to reduce the city’s greenhouse gas emissions 30% by 2030.
On average through the summer of 2011, the pilot white roof surface reduced peak rooftop temperature compared to a typical black roof by 43 degrees Fahrenheit, according to the study, which was the first long‐term effort in New York to test how specific white roof materials held up and performed over several years.
Widespread installation of white roofs, which New York City is attempting through the NYC CoolRoofs program, could reduce city temperatures while cutting down on energy usage and resulting greenhouse gas emissions, said Stuart Gaffin, a research scientist at Columbia University, and lead author on the paper detailing the roof study.
The urban landscape of asphalt, metal, and dark buildings absorbs more energy from sunlight than forests, fields or snow‐and ice‐covered landscapes, which reflect more light. The absorption leads to what scientists call an “urban heat island,” where a city experiences markedly warmer temperatures than surrounding regions. New York City’s urban heat island has a more pronounced effect at night, typically raising nighttime temperatures between 5 and 7 degrees Fahrenheit relative to what they would be without the effect, according to Gaffin’s previous research.
The problem leads to everything from spikes in electricity usage and greenhouse gas emissions to poorer air quality and increased risk of death during heat waves. In recent years, city planners worldwide have discussed cutting into this effect by converting dark roofs to either “living” roofs covered in plants or to white roofs, the far less expensive option. The options tested in this study included two synthetic membranes requiring professional installation and a do‐it‐yourself (DIY), white‐paint coating that is being promoted by the city’s white roof initiative.
With climate change, the urban heat island problem will likely intensify in coming decades, said Cynthia Rosenzweig, a scientist at NASA’s Goddard Institute for Space Studies in New York City and a co‐author on the paper. She said "Right now, we average about 14 days each summer above 90 degrees in New York. In a couple decades, we could be experiencing 30 days or more".
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